Timeline

In the grand tradition of master alternate history storytellers (such as Harry Turtledove), the alternative universe of Leviathans is not an endless series of twists and turns that far outstrips our own world of 1910. Instead, the world—as we’re developing it—is based upon the concept of a single, pivotal moment in history where a significant change occurs. Then, progressing forward, how would our world be different if everything else progressed as it had in our world, but now incorporating that single impact point: 1878 Rynchowski isolates the electrical fluid he calls eteroid.

Now history will change, of course, as you progress past that pivotal moment. Changes impacting both the technology of the world (military and civilian), as well as societal changes based upon these developments. This timeline incorporates both “real world” developments, as well as those developments unique to Leviathans, touching upon both technology and society. Since the pace of advancements in the 19th and 20th centuries was a breathless sprint that only increased speed as each year progressed, this timeline begins in the year 1800. Additionally, as the timeline closes in on the timeframe of 1910 it includes more details as such events more directly impact the dynamic universe we’re creating.

Just as the game design is still under development, the universe is also still under development and will see changes before a final product is released. As such, this is a “living timeline” that will see modifications and corrections in the coming weeks and months.

1800
Frenchmen, J.M. Jacquard invents the Jacquard Loom.

Count Alessandro Volta invents the battery.

1804
Freidrich Winzer (Winsor) was the first person to patent gas lighting.

Richard Trevithick, an English mining engineer, developed the first steam-powered locomotive. Unfortunately, the machine was too heavy and broke the very rails it was traveling on.

1809
Humphry Davy invents the first electric light: the first arc lamp.

1810
German, Frederick Koenig invents an improved printing press.

Peter Durand invents the tin can.

1814
George Stephenson designs the first steam locomotive.

The first plastic surgery is performed in England.

German, Joseph von Fraunhofer invents the spectrocope for the chemical analysis of glowing objects.

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph. He took the picture by setting up a machine called the “camera obscura” in the window of his home in France. It took eight hours for the camera to take the picture.

1819
Samuel Fahnestock patents a soda fountain.

René Laënnec invents the stethoscope.

1823
Mackintosh (raincoat) invented by Charles Mackintosh of Scotland.

1824
Michael Faraday invents the first toy balloon.

Englishmen, Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.

1825
William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet.

1827
John Walker invents modern matches.

Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase microphone.

1829
American, W.A. Burt invents a typewriter.

Frenchmen, Louis Braille invents braille printing for the blind. William Austin Burt patents a typographer, a predecessor to the typewriter.

1830
Frenchmen, Barthelemy Thimonnier invents a sewing machine.

1831
American, Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper.

Michael Faraday invents a electric dynamo.

1834
Jacob Perkins invents an early refrigerator type device: an ether ice machine.

1835
Englishmen, Henry Talbot invents calotype photography.

Solymon Merrick patents the wrench.

1836
Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invent the propellor.

Samuel Colt invents the first revolver.

1837
Samuel Morse invents the telegraph.

English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill invents the postage stamp.

1839
American, Thaddeus Fairbanks invents platform scales.

American, Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization.

Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent Daguerreotype photography.

Kirkpatrick Macmillan invents a bicycle.

Welshman, Sir William Robert Grove conceives of the first hydrogen fuel cell.

1840
Englishman, John Herschel invents the blueprint.

1841
Samuel Slocum patents the stapler.

1844
Englishman, John Mercer invents mercerized cotton.

1845
American, Elias Howe invents a sewing machine.

Robert William Thomson patents the first vulcanised rubber pneumatic tire.

1846
Dr. William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anesthesia for tooth extraction.

1847
Hungarian, Ignaz Semmelweis invents antisceptics.

1849
Walter Hunt invents the safety pin.

1851
Isaac Singer invents a sewing machine.

1852
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault invents the gyroscope.

Henri Giffard builds an airship powered by the first aircraft engine: an unsuccessful design.

1853
George Cayley invents a manned glider.

1856
Louis Pasteur invents pasteurization.

1858
Hamilton Smith patents the rotary washing machine.

Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine.

1860
Failure of the Armstrong 100-pounder breech-loader rifled cannon causes the Royal Navy to revert to rifled muzzle-loaders.

1861
Elisha Otis patents elevator safety brakes, creating a safer elevator.

Pierre Michaux invents a bicycle.

Linus Yale invents the Yale lock or cylinder lock.

1862
Richard Gatling patents the machine gun.

Alexander Parkes invents the first man-made plastic, Parkesite.

1866
Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.

J. Osterhoudt patents the tin can with a key opener.

Englishmen Robert Whitehead invents a torpedo.

1867
Christopher Scholes invents the first practical and modern typewriter.

1868
George Westinghouse invents air brakes.

Robert Mushet invents tungsten steel.

J P Knight invents traffic lights.

1870-1871
Franco-Prussian War; Prussia wins decisively.

1872
A.M. Ward issues the first mail-order catalog.

1873
Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire.

1876
Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.

Nicolaus August Otto invents the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine.

Melville Bissell patents the carpet sweeper.

1877
Thomas Edison invents the cylinder phonograph or tin foil phonograph.

Eadweard Muybridge invents the first moving pictures.

Compound armor (molten steel poured between steel & wrought iron plates) replaces wrought iron armor: offers 25% better protection for same weight.

1878
Rynchowski isolates the electrical fluid he calls eteroid; he does not recognize its lifting abilities yet.

1880
The British Perforated Paper Company invents a form of toilet paper.

Englishman, John Milne invents the modern seismograph.

Development of the breech-loader, including use of interrupted breeches, causes Royal Navy to reconsider and recommence deploying rifled breech-loaders.

Spies from the Okhrana, the Russian Imperial Secret Police, obtained copies of Rynchowski’s notes and samples of both eteroid and the mechanisms by which it could be separated. The Tzar commissions Vladimiry Shukov, scientist & polymath, to investigate the material.

1880-1881
The First Boer War, also known as the “Transvaal War,” was a relatively brief conflict in which Boer settlers successfully resisted a British attempt to annex the Transvaal, and re-established an independent republic. This conflict is remarkable for its British:Boer casualty ratio of 10:1.

1881
Alexander Graham Bell invents the first crude metal detector.

David Houston patents the roll film for cameras.

Edward Leveaux patents the automatic player piano.

1882
Shukov discovers the lifting properties of eteroid when agitated by high alternating currents. The technology of the time—lack of very high voltages and suitable diamagnetic materials—mean initial tests are disappointing and little practical value is seen.

1883
Dynamite guns introduced in the US.

Russian scientist , Fedor Oblimovsky, begins a crash program (ultimately fruitless) to develop an Electroid-based explosive shell.

1884
The Mahdist revolt in the Sudan begins. General Gordon besieged in Khartoum.

George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.

Lewis Edson Waterman invents the first practical fountain pen.

James Ritty invents the first working, mechanical cash register.

Charles Parson patents the steam turbine.

1885
Karl Benz invents the first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas-engined motorcycle.

Hiram Maxim perfects his automatic machinegun.

German Imperial agents bring news of Shukov’s work from Russia to Berlin. Ernst Walter von Siemens is put in charge of the evaluation, and (with better German precision technology) shows how higher voltages produce useful lift. Kaiser Frederick III, however, does not realize the potential in the wake of the crushing Prussian victory over France in 1870

1886
Josephine Cochrane invents the dishwasher.

John Pemberton invents Coca Cola.

French spies obtain von Siemens’ work. The French begin a pilot program to produce a flying vessel, the Ganymede, spurred on by memories of the Franco-Prussian war. They convince their government to fund the construction of an ‘Aether Flyer’, pointing to the opportunity to also bypass England’s existing naval superiority by taking to the skies. Their goal is to reveal the Ganymede at the planned Exposition Universelle in Paris, in 1890.

The French term electroid gains common currency, replacing the use of eteroid in most of Europe.

1887
Emile Berliner invents the gramophone.

British agents become aware of French program. Lord Kelvin is appointed to a secretive commission charged with producing a counter.

1888
John Boyd Dunlop patents a commercially successful pneumatic tire.

Nikola Tesla invents the AC motor and transformer.

USS Vesuvius, ‘dynamite gun cruiser’, launched.

The keel of the French Avion d’Aether Ganymede is laid. Frequent problems prevent the vessel from taking flight.

German Emperor Frederick III dies. Kaiser Wilhem II crowned.

1889
Joshua Pusey invents the matchbook.

Sir James Dewar and Sir Frederick Abel co-invent Cordite: a type of smokeless gunpowder.

The Kelvin Committee perfects the practical lifting properties of electroid, or as the British insist on calling it, ‘electrical fluid’, when energized through the use of Aether Vortex generators based on Tesla’s AC transformer designs. The first electrical fluid flier is built from an old hot-water tank, powered by a bank of galvanic batteries. This lifted a coachman, Tom Ablett (first electrical aeronaut) to a height of 50 feet, before the boiler burst at a weakened seam and crashed to the ground. Tom Ablett becomes the first casualty of electric flight.

1890
Harvey armor (case-hardened steel armor) replaces compound armor, offering 20% better protection for same weight.

The French become aware of British work in the field, and change plans. After a series of false starts (and fatal accidents), the Ganymede is smuggled to Britain in pieces—under cover of railway locomotive parts—and reconstructed inside the French pavilion at the Crystal Palace for the Greater Britain Exhibition in London. To the amazement of the crowd, the Ganymede lifts itself skywards, draped in bunting, belching smoke and carrying beneath it a platform on which two mounted and armored Cuirassiers brandishing the Tricolore. When the French Ambassador challenges Prime Minister Gladstone, “Eh, and sir, what do you say to that?”, the Prime Minister checkes his watch, brushes a smut from his sleeve, and asks “Why is yours so infernally dirty?” Moments later, Her Majesty’s Sky Ship Leviathan—first sky vessel of that name—chuggs its way across the sky, conspicuously absent colored bunting and horsemen, but displaying a pair of 3” howitzers mounted on its bow, and a number of Vickers automatic machine-guns.

The great Sky Race begins. Initially all designs used broad-bladed screw airscrews, looking like bigger ship screws. These worked at reasonably low revolutions, and performed with low efficiency.

Loss of VNF Rousseau on Alsace-Lorraine border raises Franco-German tensions.

1891
Telsa demonstrates his ‘resonant transformer’—an early system for generating high-frequency, high-voltage currents. This provides as much of a leap as the shift from single-stage to multiple-stage boilers gave sea-going ships, increasing lifting ability, albeit at high cost in fuel.

The term “Leviathans” becomes common nomenclature to describe any air vessel, regardless of size, class or nationality.

Portsmouth Naval Review: Royal Navy fleet embarrassed by strong presence of French leviathans accompanying MNF ships.

John “Jackie” Fisher appointed Third Sky Lord by Queen Victoria; charged with building a fleet of Leviathans “to shame the French”.

Von Siemens initially enthuses new Kaiser Wilhelm II with the prospect of competing with Britain and France in the skies. German program launched under Admiral Von Tirpitz.

1891 – 1894
The first generation of functional Leviathans appears. Limited in size to what would latter be termed destroyers and light cruisers, they have reasonable armament, armor proof from most rifle fire, and pitiful ranges. Their use in colonial wars, however, enabled French victories in Africa, and English victories in Afghanistan. Practical limits on their use also involve production of electroid at elefacturies—dark, satanic mills where electrical current is converted into electroid—and supplies of copper to form electroid tanks.

Evolution of the airscrew. Airscrews become longer and leaner. Efficiency improves, but vulnerability doesn’t. Most Leviathans are destroyer/light cruiser class fighting poorly armed tribesmen, except for a few prestige “battleships”. This changes when an initial clash between France and Italian Leviathans in 1893 ends with both ships crippled due to airscrew damage. The Italian ship was recovered, but the French vessel was blown south over the Mediterranean and foundered when it failed to maintain charge.

1892
Rudolf Diesel invents the diesel-fueled internal combustion engine.

Sir James Dewar invents the Dewar flask or vacuum flask.

First Russian Leviathans, known colloquially as Berkuts (Falcons) raised.

French Ganys (French term for Leviathans) crucial in “The Colonial Landgrab”; French control of Algeria and Somaliland locked in

1893
American, W.L. Judson invents the zipper.

Edward Goodrich Acheson invents carborundum.

New Zealand extends voting privileges to women.

Krupp armor developed; offered 20% better resistance than equivalent thickness of Harveyised armor.

First American Leviathan, USS Raleigh, raised.

German Leviathan SMS Kaiser Friedrich III crashes during gunnery tests. Kronprinz Wilhelm, heir to the German throne, dies in the accident. Heartbroken, Kaiser Wilhelm II cancels German Leviathan development.

1894
Popular books include: The Jungle Books, The Prisoner of Zenda.

US starts building coastal artillery batteries of dynamite guns.

Sino-Japanese War begins. To protect its Far Eastern territories, centered on Vladivostock, Russia pressures France and England to join them in the Triple Intervention.

1895
Lumiere Brothers invent a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe. They are the first to present a projected motion picture to an audience of more that one person.

Popular books include: The Time Machine, Jude the Obscure.

Development of the first ducted airscrews, making Leviathans much more viable in dynamic combat situations. Second generation Leviathans can are no longer crippled so easily and the higher efficiency of ducted airscrew makes them capable of carrying greater loads and achieving modest speeds on the order of 20 knots.

Russians force Chinese to cede control of Port Arthur.

Germans send Imperial German Army advisors under Jakob Meckel to advise Imperial Japanese Army.

Japanese attack Russian territories in the Far East, starting Russo-Japanese War.

Seige of Vladivostok.

Italy raises its first Leviathan, the RM Napoli.

1896
Popular books include: The Island of Dr. Moreau.

British Expeditionary Force, led by Lord Kitchener retakes the Sudan. Mahdist forces unable to stand against British Leviathans, including the HML Inflexible, aka ‘HMS Incontinent’. “Had we not had these great warships on our side, it would have taken years to put down these savage devils,” Kitchener says.

Russian skyfleet under command of Mikhail Kozlov defeat Japanese naval fleet under command of Togo Haihachiro.

1897
Popular books include: The Invisible Man, Captains Courageous.

Japanese lift blockade of Vladivostock.

Russo-Japanese War ends; Russia maintains and expands its territory in the Far East.

1897 – 1906
Continued development of the ducted airscrew. Vittorio Cuniberti invents the two-stage ducted airscrew. Larger (heavy cruiser and battleship) and faster (25 knot) vessels become possible.

Tesla’s improved ‘Electrical Transformer’—a two-stage coil—increases lifting capacity further. In addition, the new design almost doubles the production efficiency of the next generation of elefacturies.

Third generation Leviathans enter service. Better range, better armor, similar weaponry. Establishment of elefacturies in colonies, however of limited capacity compared to continental production rates.

1898
Popular books include: The War of the Worlds.

The Fashoda Incident. British and French troops and Leviathans clash in the Sudan. An indecisive outcome is regarded as a moral (and actual) victory by the French

1899
Popular books include: Thus Spake Zarathustra.

A poor showing by the Imperial Fleet at the Solent Fleet Review leads to Kaiser Wilhelm II to rescind his decree and demand the creation of a German High Fleet. Von Tirpitz works with Siemens and Meckel to this end.

1899 – 1902
The Second Boer War: a lengthy war involving large numbers of troops from many British possessions, which ends with the conversion of the Boer republics into British colonies. Leviathans employed by Britiain but prove less effective against well-equipped guerilla fighters than against typical ‘native’ forces.

1900
The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno’s escalator (1901) and invents the modern escalator.

William Harley and Arthur Davidson build their first motorized bicycle.

Premier of Puccini’s opera Tosca.

Popular books include: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Lord Jim.

Paris International Exhibition.

Boxer Rebellion in China.

Humbert I, King of Italy, assassinated by anarchist.

Sigmund Freud publishes “The Science of Dreams”.

Oscar Wilde dies in Paris.

Max Planck unveils Quantum Theory.

The ‘Dwarvslei Massacre’l: Australian troops kill Boer irregulars.

1901
The first radio receiver successfully receives a radio transmission.

Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.

Popular Operas include: The Toreador, Feast in the Time of Plague, Rusalka.

Death of Queen Victoria; England in mourning.

Oil found in Texas, USA.

Riots in Russia; Nihilists and students blamed.

Bequerel presents radium discoveries.

President McKinley assassinated by Polish anarchist; Teddy Roosevelt sworn in.

Eastman Kodak Co. formed following success of $1 “Brownie” camera.

First Nobel prizes awarded.

Gillette markets replacable “safety” razor.

Theodore Roosevelt dedicates the American Sky Academy in memory of the late President McKinley.

Trial of Australian troops under Capt. Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant implicated in ‘Dwarvslei Massacre’ ends in mutiny of Australian troops under command of Lord Kitchiner. Rear Admiral Percy Scott, commanding HML Scylla, bombards mutinying troops.

Italian and Austro-Hungarian Leviathans clash outside Valona Harbour; the Italians coordinate with naval vessels and drive off their foes.

1902
Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.

The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.

The birth of the Teddy Bear.

Popular musicals include: The Wizard of Oz.

Popular operas include: Pelleas et Milisande, Merrie England.

Popular songs include: Two Little Boys, In The Good Old Summertime.

Australia extends voting privileges to women.

Britain/Japan sign treaty of alliance.

Mosquitoes identified as carriers of Yellow Fever.

Australia gripped by terrible drought.

State of emergency declared in Ireland due to civil unrest.

Edison invents alkaline battery.

Coronation of Edward VII of England.

Freidrich Krupp dies of apoplexy, age 48.

Popular books include: The Tale of Peter Rabbit.

British aerial vessels bombard Venezuela.

Federated States of Australia declares independence from Great Britain, citing treatment of Australian troops in Boer War.

French and Italian Leviathans clash over Sicily.

1903
Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.

Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.

The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.

Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.

Popular operas include: Le Roi Arthus, Siberia, Babes in Toyland.

Popular songs include: We Shall Overcome, Waltzing Matilda, The Eyes of Texas.

British forces march on “Mad Mullah” in Italian Somaliland.

Peasant mobs slaughter Jews in Russian “pogrom”.

King & Queen of Serbia assassinated by disaffected military officers.

“The Great Train Robbery”—an 8-minute film—rakes in cash for Edison Co.

First “Tour de France”.

Pope Leo XIII dies; succeeded by Pius X.

Horror at details of Balkan atrocities.

Turks butcher 50,000 in Bulgaria.

Madame Curie wins Nobel Prize for work on radium.

Wrights fly first heavier-than-air aeroplane.

British PM Balfour declares the “Salsbury Doctrine”: the skies over the English Channel belong to England.

Clashes between British and French air cruisers.

SMS Westfalen enters Australian territories, berthing at Port Moresby. Germany enters into a security arrangement with the Republic, leading to the Westfalen remaining in Australian skies for three years.

1904
Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.

John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.

Last US dynamite gun batteries decommissioned.

Popular operas include: Madame Butterfly, The Haughty Princess.

Popular songs include: Give My Regards to Broadway.

Popular books include: Nostromo.

Play “Peter Pan” premiers in London.

America ends occupation of Cuba.

Britain goes to war in Tibet against rebels; Ghurka and Sikh regiments carry the day.

Olympic Games in St. Louis, USA.

Theodore Roosevelt elected President of USA in his own right.

Ivan Pavlov wins Nobel Prize for medicine.

1905
Albert Einstein publishes the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.

Tubercular bacillus identified.

Popular operas include: The Merry Widow, The Bravest Hussar, Salome.

Popular songs include: In My Merry Oldsmobile, “Wait ’Till The Sun Shines, Nellie”.

Popular books include: White Fang, The Return of Sherlock Holmes.

Bloody Sunday: in St. Petersburg, Czar’s troops kill 500+.

Duma—Czar’s reforms fail—uprisings crushed by troops.

Grand Duke Sergei of Russia assassinated by anarchist bomb.

1906
William Kellogg invents Cornflakes.

Lewis Nixon invents the first sonar like device.

Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).

Popular songs include: You’re a Grand Old Flag, Anchors Aweigh.

Talks on Morocco open in Spain, between France and Germany.

Great Earthquake devastates San Francisco.

Olympic Games held in Athens, Greece.

Large earthquake in Chile leaves many dead.

US steps into power vacuum in Cuba.

Britain unveils a new, even larger class of sky battleship—HML Leviathan, fourth of that name—great enough to carry turreted 12” guns.

1907
Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.

Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

Popular musicals include: The Zeigfield Follies.

Popular songs include: Oh I Do Like To Be Beside the Seaside, Prayer of the Prairie, TIpperary, The Monkeys Have No Tails in Zamboanga.

Manchuria handed back to China by Japanese.

French Leviathans shell Casablanca over murder of 9 Europeans.

The “Great White Fleet”—the US Atlantic Sky Fleet—begins circumnavigation of the globe.

HML Philopoemen, under Captain John “Black Jack” Christian, levels German Kaiserin and French Dunquerque clash in skies over Franco-German border.

1908
The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.

Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.

Model T first sold.

J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.

Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.

Popular songs include: Shine On Harvest Moon, All She Gets From the Iceman is Ice, Take Me Out to the Ballgame.

Popular books include: Anne of Green Gables, The Wind in the Willows.

‘Scouting for Boys’ published by Robert Baden-Powell.

Frenchman makes first circular flight in heavier-than-air aeroplane.

Portugese King shot in back by anarchist.

“Young Turks” revolutionary movement forces changes on Ottoman sultan.

Olympic Games in London, England.

The “Great White Fleet” visits Federated States of Australia

1909
Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.

Popular songs include: By The Light of the Silvery Moon, I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now, I’ve Got a Pain in my Sawdust.

Popular books include: The Road to Oz.

Young Turks topple the Ottoman Sultan.

Commander Peary reaches North Pole by air.

Bleriot crosses English Channel in heavier-than-air aeroplane.

Japanese Prince Ito shot by Korean assassin in Manchuria.

Marconi wins Nobel Prize for work with wireless.

The “Great White Fleet” returns to Rhode Island, completing its epic round-the-globe journey.

British and German Leviathans clash over the Skaggerak. British attempts to bottle in the Germans fail. SMS [i]Friedrich der Grosse[/i] blasts HML [i]Suffolk[/i] out of the sky in a single broadside.

1910
Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.

X-rays guide removal of nail from lung.

Halley’s Comet passes earth.

Edward VII dies; succeeded by George V.

Revolution ousts Portugese monarchy.

HML Leviathan and VNF Jean Bart clash over Egypt